Filipino Rebel Groups in the Philippines

Filipino Rebel Groups in the Philippines:

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Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF)

Moro Islamic Libertaion Front (MILF)

New People’s Army (NPA)

Abu Sayyaf (ASG)

Rajah Solaiman Group (RSG)

Ilaga

Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF)

Nur Missuari Breakaway Group

Ampatuans

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List of active rebel groups

List of active rebel groups

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International
Al-Qaeda (Islamist)
Jama’at al-Jihad al-Islami (Islamist)

Afghanistan
Hezb-e-Islami Gulbuddin(Islamist)

Algeria
Al-Qaeda Organization in the Islamic Maghreb
also operates Morocco, Mauritania, Niger and Mali (sometimes “Al Qaeda in the Sahel” (Islamist)

Angola
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (separatist nationalist)

Burma
Democratic Karen Buddhist Army(Buddhist/nationalist)
Committee for Emergence of a Federal Union (CEFU)
Karen National Union (ethnic/Democratic)
Kachin Independence Organization
Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP)
the Shan State Progressive Party (SSPP)
Shan State Army-North (SSA-N)
Shan State Army-South (SSA-South)
New Mon State Party (NMSP)
Chin National Front (CNF)

Colombia
National Liberation Army (ELN) (Marxist)
Popular Liberation Army (Marxist)
Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia[ (FARC) (Marxist)
Black Eagles (rightwing paramilitary)

France
Comité Régional d’Action Viticole (Winemaker)
National Liberation Front of Corsica (Corsican nationalism)

Greece
Sect of Revolutionaries (leftist/anarchist)
Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei (leftist/anarchist)

Haiti
National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti

India
Abhinav Bharat (Hindu nationalism)
Communist Party of India (Maoist) (Marxist)
Harkat-ul-Mujahideen[12] (Islamist)
Hizbul Mujahideen[13] (Islamist)
International Sikh Youth Federation  (Sikh)
Jaish-e-Mohammed[15] (Islamist)
Khalistan Commando Force (Sikh)
Khalistan Zindabad Force (Sikh)
Lashkar-e-Taiba[18] (also in Pakistan) (Islamist)
National Socialist Council of Nagaland – Isaac-Muivah (Christian)
Students Islamic Movement of India (Islamist)
United Jihad Council (Islamist)
United Liberation Front of Assam (separatist)

Indonesia
Jemaah Islamiyah
(also known to operate in other parts of South East Asia such as Singapore and the Philippines) (Islamist)
South Moluccas – (Christian)
Free Papua Movement

Italy
Informal Anarchist Federation (leftist/anarchist)

Iran
Jundullah (Baloch nationalism/Islamist Sunni)
PJAK (affiliates of Turkey’s PKK) (Kurdish nationalism)

Iraq
Al-Qaeda in Iraq (Islamist)
Islamic Army in Iraq (Islamist)
Mahdi Army (Islamist)

Lebanon
Hezbollah
Various Palestinian groups

Mali
National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad

Mexico
Popular Revolutionary Army (Marxist)
Zapatista Army of National Liberation (anarcho-communist)

Nigeria
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta(anarcho-communist)
Boko Haram

Pakistan
Balochistan Liberation Army (Baloch nationalism)
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (Islamist)
Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (Islamist)
Fedayeen al-Islam (Islamist)
Lashkar-e-Islam(Islamist)
Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (Islamist)
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (also operated in Kyrgzstan) (Islamist)
Lashkar-e-Omar(Islamist)

Palestine
Palestine Liberation Organization
Fatah
Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigade
Force 17
Tanzim
Fatah Hawks
Abu-Arish brigades
al-Awda Brigade
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine – General Command
Abu Ali Mustapha Brigades
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Palestine Liberation Front
Hamas
Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades
Qawasameh tribe
Morbiton (People’s Army)
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
Al-Quds Squads
Popular Resistance Committees
Abu Samhadana clan
Army of Islam (Gaza Strip)
Fatah Revolutionary Council

Paraguay
Paraguayan People’s Army (leftist)

Peru
Shining Path (Maoist)

Philippines
Abu Sayyaf (Al-Harakat Al-Islamiyya) (Islamist)
Moro National Liberation Front (nationalist)
Moro Islamic Liberation Front[ (Islamist)
Rajah Sulaiman Movement (Islamist)
Misuari Renegade/Breakaway Group
Philippine Raja Solaiman Movement (Islamist)
New People’s Army (Communist)
Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas-1930 (Communist)
Alex Boncayao Brigades (Communist)

Russia
Caucasus Mujahadeen (Islamist)
Ingush Jamaat (Islamist)
Shariat Jamaat (Islamist)
Yarmuk Jamaat (Islamist)
Kataib al-Khoul (Islamist)

Rwanda
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda
(also active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) (ethnic)

Somalia
Al-Shabaab (Islamist)

Sudan
Union of Forces for Democracy and Development
Rally of Democratic Forces (rebel group)
National Movement for Reform and Development
Justice and Equality Movement[42]
Sudan Liberation Movement/Army

Thailand
Pattani United Liberation Organization (Islamist)

Turkey
Kurdistan Workers’ Party (Kurdish nationalism/Marxist)
Kurdistan Freedom Falcons (Kurdish nationalism/Marxist)

Uganda
Lord’s Resistance Army (operates mainly in northern Uganda, but also in parts of Sudan and D.R. of the Congo). (Christian)

United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland
Continuity Irish Republican Army: 1994–present (separatist/Irish nationalist)
Real Irish Republican Army: 1997–present (separatist/Irish nationalist)
Óglaigh na hÉireann (Real IRA splinter group): 2009–present (separatist/Irish nationalist)
Republican Action Against Drugs: 2008–present (vigilante/Irish nationalist)
Orange Volunteers: 1998–present (Ulster loyalist/sectarian)
Real Ulster Freedom Fighters: 2007–present (Ulster loyalist/sectarian)
Red Hand Defenders: 1998–present (Ulster loyalist/sectarian)

Yemen
Houthis (separatist nationalism/ Islamist Shia)
Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (Islamist)

Prison gangs are now in the Philippines and Worldwide

Prison gangs are now in the Philippines and Worldwide

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Prison gang is a term used to denote any type of gang activity in prisons and correctional facilities. Prison officials and others in law enforcement use the term security threat group or STG. The concept for this name is to take away the recognition and publicity that the term “gang” connotates when referring to people who have an interestin undermining the system.

Most prison gangs do more than offer simple protection for their members. Most often, prison gangs are responsible for any drug, tobacco or alcohol handling inside correctional facilities. Furthermore, many prison gangs involve themselves in prostitution, assaults, kidnappings and murders. Prison gangs often seek to intimidate other inmates (pressuring them to relinquish their food and other resources) and bribe or intimidate prison staff (to ensure they can go about their activities without interference, and to create links to the outside).

In addition, prison gangs often exercise a large degree of influence over organized crime in the “free world”, larger than their isolation in prison might lead one to expect. Since the 1980s, larger prison gangs have consciously worked to leverage their influence inside prison systems to control and profit from drug trafficking on the street. This is made possible based upon the logic that individuals involved in selling illegal drugs face a high likelihood of serving a prison term at some point or in having a friend or family member in prison. The cooperation of drug dealers and other criminals can be secured due to the credible threat of violence upon incarceration if it is not provided. Prison gang members and associates who are released are usually expected to further the gang’s activities after their release and may face danger if they refuse and are returned to prison, such as on a parole violation. The War on Drugs also led to large numbers of drug addicts serving prison terms, providing gangs with a significant method of asserting control within the prison and by controlling the drug trade that happens on the yard and behind bars.

Prison gangs can also be responsible for laundering money from outside gangs, usually the free world branches of the same gangs “on the inside.”

Most correctional facilities have policies prohibiting the formation of prison gangs. However, many prison gangs continue to operate with impunity. As these gang members are already in prison, and often serving long sentences, any punishment incentive to leave a gang or to integrate with the general prison population is reduced.

Prison gangs often have several “affiliates” or “chapters” in different state prison systems that branch out due to the movement or transfer of their members. Smaller prison gangs may associate with or declare allegiance to larger ones. In addition, some prison gang “chapters” may split into antagonistic groups that become rivals, as the MexicanMafia did in Arizona (into the “Old” or “Original” Mexican Mafia associated with the original California gang and the “New Mexican Mafia”, a rival group).

In the United States
Aryan Brotherhood: A white prison gang that originated in California’s San Quentin Prison, amongst White American prisoners, in 1964 (their emblem, “the brand”, consists of a shamrock and the number 666). Perhaps out of their ideology and the necessity of establishing a presence among the more numerous Black and Hispanic gang members, the AB has a particular reputation for ruthlessness and violence. Since the 1990s, in part because of this reputation, the AB has been targeted heavily by state and federal authorities. Many key AB members have been moved to “supermax” control-unit prisons at both the federal and state level or are under federal indictment.

Nazi Lowriders: A newer white prison gang that emerged after many Aryan Brotherhood members were sent to the Security Housing Unit at Pelican Bay or transferred to federal prisons. NLR is associated with members originally from the Antelope Valley and is known to accept some light-skinned or Caucasian-identified Hispanic members.

La Eme or the Mexican Mafia: “Eme” is the Spanish name of the letter “M” and it is the 13th letter in the alphabet. The Mexican mafia are composed mostly of Hispanics, although some Caucasian members exist. The Mexican Mafia and the Aryan Brotherhood are allies and work together to control prostitution, drug running, weapons and “hits” or murders. Originally formed in the 1950s in California prisons by Hispanic prisoners from the southern part of that state, Eme has traditionally been composed of US-born or raised Hispanics and has retained ties to the Southern California-based “Sureños”. During the 1970s and 1980s, Eme in California established the model of leveraging their power in prison to control and profit from criminal activity on the street.

Nuestra Familia (“our family” in Spanish): The “N” is the 14th letter in the alphabet which is used as their symbol,along with the Roman numeral “XIV” to represent their gang, another mostly Hispanic prison gang that is constantly at war with La Eme and was originally formed from Northern-California or rural-based Hispanic prisoners opposing the domination by La Eme, which was started by and associated with Los Angeles gang members.

The Texas Syndicate: A mostly Texas-based prison gang that includes mostly Hispanic members and does (albeit rarely) allow Caucasian members. The Texas Syndicate, more than La Eme or Nuestra Familia, has been associated or allied with Mexican immigrant prisoners, such as the “Border Brothers”, while Eme and Familia tend to be composed of and associate with US-born or raised Hispanics.

Most African-American prison gangs retain their street gang names and associations. These commonly include Rollin’ sets (named after streets, i.e. Rollin’ 30′s, Rollin’ 40′s etc.) that can identify with either Blood or Crip affiliations. The Black Guerilla Family represents an exception, as an originally politically-based group that has a significant presence in prisons and prison politics.

Netas: a Hispanic (mainly Puerto Rican) gang, found on Puerto Rico and on the eastern coast of the US.

United Blood Nation: an African-American prison gang found on the east coast. They are rivals with the Netas and have ties with the Black Guerilla Family.

Folk Nation: Found in Midwestern and Southern states, allied with Crips, bitter rivals with the People Nation.

People Nation: Found in Midwestern and Southern states, allied with Bloods, bitter rivals with the Folk Nation.

D.C. Blacks: Found in Washington D.C. by African-American inmates, are alliged with the BGF and UBN and enemies to
AB and MM.

European Kindred: a white supremacist prison gang founded in Oregon that is affiliated with the Aryan Brotherhood
and the Ku Klux Klan.

Confederate Knights of America: a white supremacist prison gang in Texas that is affiliated with the KKK and AB.

Aryan Circle: a white supremacist prison gang affiliated with the Aryan Brotherhood of Texas and the KKK.

Dead Man Incorporated (DMI): a predominately white prison gang founded in the Maryland Correctional System with branches in many other correctional facilities throughout the U.S.

Conservative Vice Lords (CVL): A primarily African American gang that originated in the St. Charles Illinois Youth Center outside Chicago.[ In Chicago, CVL operated primarily in the Lawndale section and used drug sales profits to continue operation and used prisons to train and recruit new members.

Aryan Brotherhood of Texas: a white supremacist prison gang affiliated with the AB and the KKK.

Latin Kings Gang is now in the Philippines (Filipinas) and Worldwide

Latin Kings Gang is now in the Philippines (Filipinas)  and Worldwide

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Latin Kings graffiti of the King Master along with the abbreviations “L” and “K” on the sides.
Founding location Chicago, Illinois
Years active 1940′s — present
Territory Nationwide, in predominately Hispanic neighborhoods in Chicago, New York City as well as other
cities throughout the United States
Ethnicity Hispanic / mainly Puerto Rican and Mexican
Membership King Motherland Chicago faction – 20,000 to 35,000

Bloodline faction – 2,200 to 7,500

Criminal activities Racketeering, battery, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, extortion, identity document
forgery, robbery, and murder
Allies People Nation, Vice Lords, Bloods, United Blood Nation
Rivals Folk Nation, Maniac Latin Disciples, Spanish Gangster Disciples

The Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation (ALKQN, ALKN, LKN) is said to be the largest and one of the most organized Hispanic street gang in the United States of America, which has its roots dating back to the 1940s in Chicago, Illinois.
Latin Kings
History
The Latin Kings street gang was formed in Chicago in the 1940s and consisted predominantly of Puerto Rican males. Although it was created by Puerto Ricans, most factions of the gang are now dominated by Mexicans, specifically in the Midwest—including Chicago, the city with the second largest Mexican population in the United States.

Originally created with the philosophy of overcoming racial prejudice and creating an organization of “Kings,” the Latin Kings evolved into a criminal enterprise operating throughout the United States under two umbrella factions—Motherland, also known as KMC (King Motherland Chicago), and Bloodline (New York City). All members of the gang refer to themselves as Latin Kings and, currently, individuals of any nationality are allowed to become members.

Latin Kings associating with the Motherland faction also identify themselves as “Almighty Latin King Nation (ALKN),” and make up more than 160 structured chapters operating in 158 cities in 31 states. The membership of Latin Kings following KMC is estimated to be 20,000 to 35,000. The Bloodline was founded by Luis Felipe in the New York State correctional system in 1986. Latin Kings associating with Bloodline also identify themselves as the “Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation (ALKQN).” Membership is estimated to be 2,200 to 7,500, divided among several dozen chapters operating in 15 cities in 5 states. Bloodline Latin Kings share a common culture and structure with KMC and respect them as the Motherland, but all chapters do not report to the Chicago leadership hierarchy. The gang’s primary source of income is the street-level distribution of powder cocaine, crack cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. Latin Kings continue to portray themselves as a community organization while engaging in a wide variety of criminal activities, including assault, burglary, homicide, identity theft, and money laundering.

LeadershipLatin King documents reveal that Gino Gustavo Colon (a.k.a. “Lord Gino”) is considered the leader or “Sun” of the Chicago Latin Kings. They also refer to him as their “Corona”, which means “Crown”. Currently he is serving a life sentence in federal prison due to a 25-count indictment, which includes charges of murder and conspiracy to distribute cocaine and other drugs.

Organizational structureThe Latin Kings have a hierarchical organizational structure: they have numerous “chapters” or “tribes” across the country, which adhere to a regional, state, and a national system. Officers (Inca, Casique and Enforcer) are supported by a “Crown Council” of seven members which set rules and regulations and holds disciplinary hearings. The hierarchy leads to regional officers and ultimately to the Supreme Inca ruler based in Chicago. The head (or heads) of the entire criminal organization are known as ”Coronas” (crowns in English). One retired detective said “When you compare them to other street gangs like the Bloods and the Crips, none compare to the organization of the Latin Kings.”.

Markings
Latin King gang member showing his gang tattoo, a lion with a crown, and signifying the 5 point star with his hands An example of common Latin Kings’ vandalism – showing a crude depiction of a five-pointed crown and the saying, “Amor de Rey”.The Latin King colors are black and gold; gang markings consist of a 5 or 3-point crown, writings of LK, ALK, ALKN, ALKQN abbreviations (or the whole words); and drawings of the Lion and/or the King Master. Latin King symbolism is usually accompanied with the name and number of the chapter, region or city of the gang. The Latin Kings are of the People Nation, and therefore, represent everything to the “right” in opposition to the “left”, which is representative of the Folk Nation.

Kingism
According to John H. Richardson in the February 1997 issue of the New York Magazine, “What also made the Kings different was their unique mixture of intense discipline, revolutionary politics and a homemade religion called “Kingism”–adding idealism and a bootcamp rigor to the usual gang camaraderie—a potent mixture for troubled ghetto kids whose lives lacked structure and hope”.

The Latin Kings operate under strict codes and guidelines that are conveyed in a lengthy constitution, and they follow the teachings of the King Manifesto.In this manifesto you can find traces of Marxism, Christianity,Confucianism and other revolutionary/historical world-views, which when combined make up the ideology and morality of “KINGISM”.

According to the Latin King Manifesto, there are three stages or cycles of Nation life that constitute Kingism. They are:

1.The Primitive Stage: wherein the neophyte member is expected to be immature and to be involved in such activities as gang-banging and being a street warrior without the full consciousness of Kingism.

2.The Conservative or Mummy Stage: which is where a member tires of the street gang life but is still accepting of life as it has been taught to him by the existing system that exploits all people of color, dehumanizes them, and maintains them under the conditions and social yoke of slavery.

3.The New King Stage: where the member “learns that his ills lie at the roots of a system completely alien to his train of thought and his natural development, due to the components of dehumanization that exist therein”.According to the Manifesto, “The New King is the end product of complete awareness, perceiving three-hundred and sixty degrees of enlightenment; his observations are free and independent; his thoughts are not clouded by any form of prejudice…For him there are no horizons between races, sexes and senseless labels”, including gang labels for recognition. The New King no longer views the rival warrior as the cause of his ills; instead, he fights against the Anti-King System (social injustices and inequality), a system which seeks to deny and oppress his people: the Oppressed Third World Peoples.

King Motherland Chicago Latin KingsThe Chicago faction of the Latin Kings is recognized as the largest Hispanic street gang, and the largest Chicago-based street gang, in the United States. Although the original Chicago members were of Puerto Rican descent, most members are now Mexican-American. Unlike MS-13 and 18th Street gang—whose great portion of gang membership exists in Central and South America—the Latin Kings have a heavier presence within the United States. The gang has over 25,000 members in the city of Chicago alone and have organized chapters in over 41 states and several Latin American and European countries, including: Mexico, Spain, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Canada, Italy, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Portugal, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, United Kingdom and others. The Latin Kings are mostly of Latino descent, with some Black, White, Asian and Middle Eastern members as well.Violent HistoryViolence is the hallmark of the Chicago Latin Kings. In their beginnings, when they were not great in size, their brutal history and propensity for violence distinguished them from other Latino gangs in Chicago, making them equal players with the larger Black “Super Gangs”, such as the Gangster Disciples, the Almighty Vice Lord Nation and the Black P. Stones. The ALKN is the largest and most violent Hispanic street gang in Illinois. For example, in 2000 there were approximately 1600 self-admitted Latin Kings in the Illinois prison system, and these accounted for over half of all the recorded violent acts on prison personnel and other inmates, making the Latin Kings the most violent prison gang in Illinois(FBI Fiscal Report 2000).

Mexican Mafia La Eme Prison Gang is now in the Philippines (Filipinas) and Worldwide

Mexican Mafia La Eme Prison Gang is now in the Philippines (Filipinas) and Worldwide

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Mafia Mexicana, Mexican Mafia or La eMe

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Founded 1957
Founding location Deuel Vocational Institution, California, United States
Years active 1957 – Present
Territory US federal prison systems, California Prison System, and 12 other states with a heavy presence in
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas
Ethnicity Predominately Hispanic with mostly Mexicans and some other ethnic groups
Membership 150-300 but estimated to be as much as 400 active members
Criminal activities Murder, money laundering, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, Kidnapping, pandering,
racketeering, extortion, human trafficking, illegal immigration, fraud and illegal gambling
Allies Sureños, Armenian Power, Mara Salvatrucha, Aryan Brotherhood, New Mexico Syndicate,
Rivals Nuestra Familia, Nortenos, Black Guerilla Family, Arizona’s New Mexican Mafia, Black Street Gangs

The Mexican Mafia (Spanish: Mafia Mexicana), also known as La eMe (Spanish for the letter M), is a Mexican American highly-organized, ruthless crime organization in the United States. Despite its name, the Mexican Mafia did not originate in Mexico and is entirely a U.S. criminal prison organization. Surenos use the number 13 to show allegiance to the Mexican Mafia. M is the 13th letter of the alphabet. Law enforcement officials report that La eMe is the most powerful gang within the California prison system. Government officials state that there are currently 155–300 official members of the Mexican Mafia with around 990 associates who assist La eMe in carrying out its illegal activities in the hopes of becoming full members. Sureño street gangs and the Mexican Mafia are almost ethnically homogenous, that is, they consist of almost entirely of Hispanic members. When Sureños enter correctional facilities, they are required to put aside their rivalries and obey the Mexican Mafia or suffer possible lethal consequences.

History
The Mexican Mafia was formed in 1957 by 13 Hispanic street gang members from different Los Angeles neighborhoods that
were all incarcerated at the Deuel Vocational Institution; a California Youth Authority facility which is now an adult state prison in Tracy, California. They formed in order to protect themselves from other prison gangs at the time. The founder of La eMe is Luis “Huero Buff” Flores who was an active member of the Hawaiian Gardens gang in Hawaiian Gardens, California. Gang warfare between Hispanic neighborhoods was the norm during the 1950s and 60s so the fact that Luis Flores was able to get established enemies to set aside their rivalries upon entry into the prison system was something that was not thought possible. This requirement exists to present day. Hispanic street gangs like White Fence, San Fer, Avenues, Clanton 14, Varrio Nuevo Estrada, and Hoyo Maravilla were already into their second decade and firmly established as self sustaining entities. Luis Flores initially recruited violent members to the gang in an attempt to create a highly-feared organization which could control the black market activities of the Deuel prison facilities. La eMe member Ramon “Mundo” Mendoza claims that in the beginning the overall goal was to terrorize the prison system and enjoy prison comforts while doing time.

As new members of La Eme filtered out back into the streets, Anacleta “Annie” Ramirez, a well-known member of the East Los Angeles community, took many of them under her wing and paired them up with neighborhood youngsters who lacked direction. Ramirez, a sharp, tough woman, taught the youngsters discipline, rules of street life, and, at first, petty crime. This later escalated to her role as a shot caller—as drugs became a major part of the trade—who would get rid of her enemies by ordering youth loyal to her on missions. After she had given the directive, many of her enemies were reportedly murdered on sight.

Rise
By 1961 violence got so bad at the Deuel Vocational Institution that administrators transferred a number of the charter La eMe members to San Quentin Penitentiary in the hopes of discouraging their violent behavior. This tactic failed. Cheyenne Cadena arrived on the lower yard of San Quentin and was met by a six-foot-five, 300-pound black inmate who planted a kiss on his face and announced this scrawny teenager would now be his ‘bitch. Cadena returned a short time later, walked up to the unsuspecting predator, and stabbed him to death with a jailhouse knife,or shank. There were more than a thousand inmates on the yard and no witnesses stepped forward. A string of other slayings soon followed as La eMe members sought to establish a reputation among the inmates of San Quentin. The Mexican Mafia’s quest for complete control alienated many other Mexican-American inmates who were fed up with Mexican Mafia stabbing, killing, and stealing their watches, rings, cigarettes and anything else of value. Some of them secretly founded a new prison gang called La Nuestra Familia (NF) or “Our Family.” It was first established in the mid-1960s at the California Training Facility in Soledad. Some of the early members were from the Los Angeles area, but NF soon drew inmates primarily from rural communities in Northern California. The Mexican Mafia saw Nuestra Familia as inferior and “just a bunch of farmers”, or farmeros. However, in 1968 at San Quentin, a full scale riot broke out after a Mexican Mafia soldier, or soldado, stole a pair of shoes from a Nuestra Familia sympathizer. Nineteen inmates were stabbed and one La eMe associate ended up dead. The battle became known as the “Shoe War” and it established Nuestra Familia as the major La eMe rival.

New Mexican Mafia
New Mexican Mafia tattoos on prison inmate in the Arizona Correctional System.La eMe must not be confused with the New Mexican Mafia. Around 1974, a group of Hispanic inmates at Arizona State Prison, Florence, formed a prison gang known as the Mexican Mafia. Arizona Department of Corrections officials at that time obtained information that this group patterned themselves after the California Mexican Mafia which had been in existence for several years. Several Hispanics who came into the Arizona Prison System brought the concept and philosophy of the California Mexican Mafia.In 1978 the Mexican Mafia split into two organizations. One kept the original philosophy and structure and currently refer to themselves as the Original Mexican Mafia, “Califas Faction”, “EME”. The other, which came into prominence in 1984 and is the organization addressed in this workbook, refer to themselves as the New Mexican Mafia.Many assaults and murders of members of both groups have occurred as a result of each organization claiming the title of “Mexican Mafia” within the Arizona prison system. They have created their own rules and regulations and have established an organizational structure. Each member is allowed to vote on issues regarding membership and leadership. The leader, approved by the members has the power to solely decide important issues. Some of their members were previous La eMe members.

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Location
The Mexican Mafia’s power base is in the California Prison system, but they are active in many other southwestern states and the pacific region of the United States; including the Federal Prison system. La eMe is active in 13 states. Most members are male from Southern California Sureno gangs. La Eme is most active in the California and Texas prison systems. However, in Texas, the Mexican Mafia is called The Mexikanemi.

Norteños is now in the Philippines (Filipinas)

Norteños is now in the Philippines (Filipinas)

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Norteños
Graffiti in a Norteño varrio in Northern California
Founded 1978
Founding location Northern California
Years active 1978 – Present
Territory Northern California, Central California, Oregon, Washington State, Idaho, Kansas
Ethnicity Predominately Mestizo
Criminal activities Murder, Drug trafficking, arms trafficking, assault, Extortion, auto theft, burglary, robbery
Allies Nuestra Familia, Bloods, Latin Kings
Rivals Sureños, Mexican Mafia, Fresno Bulldogs, Crips

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2) https://isisandislamlatinamerica.blogspot.com

3) https://islamandisisinlatinamerica.blogspot.com

4) https://mrkowalzki21.wordpress.com/2016/07/22/the-isis-islamic-state-invasion-and-islam-of-latin-america-through-central-america-like-mayan-southern-mexico-and-guatemala/

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e Norteños (Spanish: Northerners), Nortenas for females, are groups of loosely affiliated street gangs. Norteño is a Umbrella term used to describe various street gangs that pay tribute to the Nuestra Familia while in Federal and State correctional facilities. Norteños may refer to Northern California as Norte, Spanish for “north” and their biggest rival are the Sureños from Southern California. The statewide dividing line between Norteños and Sureños has roughly been accepted as the rural community of Delano, California.

History
In 1978, Mexican-American inmates of the California state prison system separated into two rival groups, Norteños (northerners) and Sureños (southerners), according to the locations of their hometowns (the north-south dividing line is near Delano, California). Norteños affiliated with Nuestra Familia were prison enemies of the Southern Latinos who comprised La Eme, better known as the MexicanMafia. While the Mexican Mafia
had initially been created to protect Mexicans in prison, there was a perceived level of abuse by members of La Eme towards the imprisoned Latinos from rural farming areas of Northern California. The spark that led to the ongoing war between Norteños and members of the Mexican Mafia involved a situation in which a member of La Eme allegedly stole a pair of shoes from a Northerner. This event put into motion the longest-running gang war in the state of California.

Location
The Norteño stronghold is Salinas, California and most of Northern California. They are also in many other states with a strong presence in Eastern Washington, specifically Yakima County, where they dominate over the Sureños. There are reports of Norteños being as far away as New York, Texas, Colorado and other states in the Midwest United States such as Kansas.

Primeiro Comando da Capital is now in the Philippines (Filipinas)

Primeiro Comando da Capital is now in the Philippines (Filipinas)

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Primeiro Comando da Capital Founded 1993
Founding location Taubaté prison, São Paulo, Brazil
Years active 1993-present
Ethnicity Mixed, Brazilian
Criminal activities Murder, drug trafficking, arms trafficking, extortion, prison riots, prison breaks, kidnapping,
highway robbery activities

Primeiro Comando da Capital, or PCC (“First Command of the Capital”, Portuguese pronunciation: da kapi’taw]), is an anti-establishment Brazilian prison gang and criminal organization founded in 1993 by inmates of Taubaté prison in São Paulo. Since its inception, PCC has been responsible for several criminal activities such as prison breaks, prison riots, drug trafficking and highway robbery.

The name First Capital Command refers to the city of São Paulo, which is the capital of São Paulo state. The city and state having the same name, people from any part of São Paulo state often refer to the city as “the capital.”

History
The PCC was founded on August 31, 1993, by eight prisoners at Taubaté Penitentiary, called Piranhão (Big Piranha) in the state of São Paulo. At the time this was the safest jail in the state.

The group got together during a soccer game. When prisoners were transferred from the city of São Paulo to the Piranhão as punishment for bad behavior, they decided to name their football team the Capital Command.

The initial members were Misael “Misa” Aparecido da Silva, Wander Eduardo “Cara Gorda” (Fat Face) Ferreira, Antônio Carlos Roberto da Paixão, Isaías “Esquisito” (Weird) Moreira do Nascimento, Ademar “Dafé” dos Santos, Antônio “Bicho Feio” (Ugly Beast) Carlos dos Santos, César “Césinha” (Little César) Augusto Roris da Silva and José “Geleião” (Big Jelly) Márcio Felício.

PCC, which was also formerly referred to as the Party of Crime, and as 15.3.3 (following the order of the letters “P” and “C” in the former Brazilian alphabet), was founded with a clear political agenda, aiming to “fight the oppression inside the São Paulo penitentiary system” and to “avenge the death of 111 prisoners,” victims of the October 2, 1992 Carandiru massacre, when the São Paulo State Military Police stormed the now-extinct Casa de Detenção (a very large prison) and killed prisoners from its 9th pavilion in the process.

The group made use of the Chinese taititu (“yin yang”) symbol as their emblem, saying it represented “a way to balance good and evil with wisdom.” In February 2001, Idemir “Sombra” (Shadow) Carlos Ambrósio became the most prominent leader of the organization when he coordinated, by cell phone, simultaneous rebellions in 29 São Paulo state prisons, in which 16 prisoners were killed. “Sombra,” also referred to as “father,” was beaten to death on the Piranhão five months later by five members of the criminal faction in an internal struggle for the general command of the PCC. The PCC was led by “Geleião” and “Cesinha,” responsible for the alliance with another criminal organization, Rio de Janeiro’s Comando Vermelho.
São Paulo’s military Police (Polícia Militar) is the main target of the attacks.Geleião and Cesinha, from the Bangú Penitentiary where they were held, went on to coordinate violent attacks against public buildings. Considered radicals by another moderate current of the PCC, they used terrorism to intimidate authorities of the prison system and were withdrawn from leadership in November 2002, when the leadership was taken by the current leader of the organization Marcos “Marcola” Willians Herbas Camacho. After he took over, the organization put a death bounty on Geleião and Cesinha, on the counts of having testified to the police and creating the Terceiro Comando da Capital (Third Capital Command, TCC).

Under the leadership of Marcola, also known as “Playboy,” currently detained for bank robbery, the PCC took part in the March 2003 murder of Judge Antônio José Machado Dias, who ran the Penitentiary Readaptation Center (CRP) from Presidente Bernardes, São Paulo, currently Brazil’s most strict supermax-style prison. The PCC also announced its objective to use prison uprisings as a way to demoralize the government and to destroy the CRP.

The organization is partly funded by its members, called “brothers.” They are required to pay a monthly fee of R$50.00 (about US $27) while in prison, or R$500.00 (about US $270) if they are outside of it. The money is used to buy weapons and drugs, and also to finance operations to bail out prisoners connected to the organization. In order to become a member of the PCC, the prospective member needs to be formally introduced by another regular member, taking an oath to follow its 16-clause statute.