Mexican Mafia is now in the Philippines (Filipinas) and Worldwide
Mafia Mexicana, Mexican Mafia or La eMe
Founding location Deuel Vocational Institution, California, United States
Years active 1957 – Present
Territory US federal prison systems, California Prison System, and 12 other states with a heavy presence in
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas
Ethnicity Predominately Hispanic with mostly Mexicans and some other ethnic groups
Membership 150-300 but estimated to be as much as 400 active members
Criminal activities Murder, money laundering, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, Kidnapping, pandering,
racketeering, extortion, human trafficking, illegal immigration, fraud and illegal gambling
Allies Sureños, Armenian Power, Mara Salvatrucha, Aryan Brotherhood, New Mexico Syndicate,
Rivals Nuestra Familia, Nortenos, Black Guerilla Family, Arizona’s New Mexican Mafia, Black Street Gangs
The Mexican Mafia (Spanish: Mafia Mexicana), also known as La eMe (Spanish for the letter M), is a Mexican American highly-organized, ruthless crime organization in the United States. Despite its name, the Mexican Mafia did not originate in Mexico and is entirely a U.S. criminal prison organization. Surenos use the number 13 to show allegiance to the Mexican Mafia. M is the 13th letter of the alphabet. Law enforcement officials report that La eMe is the most powerful gang within the California prison system. Government officials state that there are currently 155–300 official members of the Mexican Mafia with around 990 associates who assist La eMe in carrying out its illegal activities in the hopes of becoming full members. Sureño street gangs and the Mexican Mafia are almost ethnically homogenous, that is, they consist of almost entirely of Hispanic members. When Sureños enter correctional facilities, they are required to put aside their rivalries and obey the Mexican Mafia or suffer possible lethal consequences.
The Mexican Mafia was formed in 1957 by 13 Hispanic street gang members from different Los Angeles neighborhoods that
were all incarcerated at the Deuel Vocational Institution; a California Youth Authority facility which is now an adult state prison in Tracy, California. They formed in order to protect themselves from other prison gangs at the time. The founder of La eMe is Luis “Huero Buff” Flores who was an active member of the Hawaiian Gardens gang in Hawaiian Gardens, California. Gang warfare between Hispanic neighborhoods was the norm during the 1950s and 60s so the fact that Luis Flores was able to get established enemies to set aside their rivalries upon entry into the prison system was something that was not thought possible. This requirement exists to present day. Hispanic street gangs like White Fence, San Fer, Avenues, Clanton 14, Varrio Nuevo Estrada, and Hoyo Maravilla were already into their second decade and firmly established as self sustaining entities. Luis Flores initially recruited violent members to the gang in an attempt to create a highly-feared organization which could control the black market activities of the Deuel prison facilities. La eMe member Ramon “Mundo” Mendoza claims that in the beginning the overall goal was to terrorize the prison system and enjoy prison comforts while doing time.
As new members of La Eme filtered out back into the streets, Anacleta “Annie” Ramirez, a well-known member of the East Los Angeles community, took many of them under her wing and paired them up with neighborhood youngsters who lacked direction. Ramirez, a sharp, tough woman, taught the youngsters discipline, rules of street life, and, at first, petty crime. This later escalated to her role as a shot caller—as drugs became a major part of the trade—who would get rid of her enemies by ordering youth loyal to her on missions. After she had given the directive, many of her enemies were reportedly murdered on sight.
By 1961 violence got so bad at the Deuel Vocational Institution that administrators transferred a number of the charter La eMe members to San Quentin Penitentiary in the hopes of discouraging their violent behavior. This tactic failed. Cheyenne Cadena arrived on the lower yard of San Quentin and was met by a six-foot-five, 300-pound black inmate who planted a kiss on his face and announced this scrawny teenager would now be his ‘bitch. Cadena returned a short time later, walked up to the unsuspecting predator, and stabbed him to death with a jailhouse knife,or shank. There were more than a thousand inmates on the yard and no witnesses stepped forward. A string of other slayings soon followed as La eMe members sought to establish a reputation among the inmates of San Quentin. The Mexican Mafia’s quest for complete control alienated many other Mexican-American inmates who were fed up with Mexican Mafia stabbing, killing, and stealing their watches, rings, cigarettes and anything else of value. Some of them secretly founded a new prison gang called La Nuestra Familia (NF) or “Our Family.” It was first established in the mid-1960s at the California Training Facility in Soledad. Some of the early members were from the Los Angeles area, but NF soon drew inmates primarily from rural communities in Northern California. The Mexican Mafia saw Nuestra Familia as inferior and “just a bunch of farmers”, or farmeros. However, in 1968 at San Quentin, a full scale riot broke out after a Mexican Mafia soldier, or soldado, stole a pair of shoes from a Nuestra Familia sympathizer. Nineteen inmates were stabbed and one La eMe associate ended up dead. The battle became known as the “Shoe War” and it established Nuestra Familia as the major La eMe rival.
New Mexican Mafia
New Mexican Mafia tattoos on prison inmate in the Arizona Correctional System.La eMe must not be confused with the New Mexican Mafia. Around 1974, a group of Hispanic inmates at Arizona State Prison, Florence, formed a prison gang known as the Mexican Mafia. Arizona Department of Corrections officials at that time obtained information that this group patterned themselves after the California Mexican Mafia which had been in existence for several years. Several Hispanics who came into the Arizona Prison System brought the concept and philosophy of the California Mexican Mafia.In 1978 the Mexican Mafia split into two organizations. One kept the original philosophy and structure and currently refer to themselves as the Original Mexican Mafia, “Califas Faction”, “EME”. The other, which came into prominence in 1984 and is the organization addressed in this workbook, refer to themselves as the New Mexican Mafia.Many assaults and murders of members of both groups have occurred as a result of each organization claiming the title of “Mexican Mafia” within the Arizona prison system. They have created their own rules and regulations and have established an organizational structure. Each member is allowed to vote on issues regarding membership and leadership. The leader, approved by the members has the power to solely decide important issues. Some of their members were previous La eMe members.
The Mexican Mafia’s power base is in the California Prison system, but they are active in many other southwestern states and the pacific region of the United States; including the Federal Prison system. La eMe is active in 13 states. Most members are male from Southern California Sureno gangs. La Eme is most active in the California and Texas prison systems. However, in Texas, the Mexican Mafia is called The Mexikanemi.