Alpha Phi Omega
The founding of Alpha Phi Omega in the Philippines in 1950 was preceded by an APO service project conducted just after World War II. Manila, the capital of the former Commonwealth of the Philippines, had been devastated during the war. Many universities, utilised for military purposes, were in ruins. Knowing that the education of young
people was a vital necessity for the country to get back on its feet, a number of Alpha Phi Omega members in Texas and the Pacific Northwest, having served as soldiers in the Philippines, organised book drives on their campuses. The successful project gathered hundreds of textbooks, used but usable, from libraries and students and sent to the
Philippines to help re-stock the many burnt-out college libraries in Manila.
A few years later, in January 1950, Sol George Levy (Gamma Alpha chapter 1947), a professional Scouter, an Alpha Phi Omega brother at the University of Washington in Seattle, and a friend of APO National President Dr. H. Roe
“The Chief” Bartle who served as president of Alpha Phi Omega from 1931 to 1946, went to the Philippines to generate interest among Scouts there. One evening, Levy spoke to a group of people about APO, Scouting’s national service fraternity in the USA, and its service project which donated books to Philippine schools. He also
distributed copies of three APO publications: Questions and Answers, National Constitution and By-laws, and Ritual, Rites and Ceremonies. In the audience was Librado Inocencio Ureta, then taking his MA in education at the Far
Eastern University in Manila.
Ureta and a group of former Scouts founded Alpha Phi Omega in the Philippines on March 2, 1950 at Room 214,Nicanor Reyes Hall, Far Eastern University, Manila.
Alpha Phi Omega grew rapidly in the Philippines. In its third year, it became a national organization with seven chapters chartered in Manila and Visayan campuses. It was registered October 21, 1953 with the Securities and Exchange Commission as a non-stock, non-profit, non-dividend corporation with a registered name of Alpha Phi Omega
International Collegiate Service Fraternity. The registration was renewed on June 8, 1981 with the SEC RegistrationNo. 0099381 under the name of Alpha Phi Omega International Philippines Incorporated
Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) is an international criminal gang that originated in Los Angeles, California. It has spread to other parts of the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Central America. The majority of the gang is ethnically composed of Central Americans (mostly Salvadorans) and active in urban and suburban areas.
In the U.S., the MS-13 has an especially heavy presence in Los Angeles County and the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California; the Washington, D.C. metropolitan areas of Fairfax County, Virginia, Montgomery County, Maryland, and Prince George’s County, Maryland; Queens, New York; Long Island, New York; Newark, New Jersey, Plainfield, New Jersey; Jersey City, New Jersey; Elizabeth, New Jersey; the Boston, Massachusetts area; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Houston, Texas. There is also a presence of MS-13 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Members of MS distinguish themselves by tattoos covering the body and also often the face, as well as the use of their own sign language. They are notorious for their use of violence and a subcultural moral code that predominantly consists of merciless revenge and cruel retributions. This cruelty of the distinguished members of the “Maras” or “Mareros” earned them a path to be recruited by the Sinaloa Cartel battling against Los Zetas in an ongoing drug war south of the United States border.   Their wide-ranging activities have drawn the attention of the FBI and Immigration and Customs Enforcement, who have initiated wide-scale raids against known and suspected gang members – netting hundreds of arrests across the country
The Mexican Mafia (Spanish: Mafia Mexicana), also known as La eMe (Spanish for “the M”), is a highly organized Mexican American criminal organization in the United States. Despite its name, the Mexican Mafia did not originate in Mexico and is entirely a U.S. criminal prison organization. Sureños, including MS-13 and Florencia 13, use the number 13 to show allegiance to the Mexican Mafia.
M is the 13th letter of the alphabet. Law enforcement officials report that La eMe is the most powerful gang within the California prison system. Government officials state that there are currently 155–300 official members of the Mexican Mafia with around 990 associates who assist La eMe in carrying out its illegal activities in the hopes of becoming full members.[
Many Sureño gangs have rivalries with one another and the only time this rivalry is set aside is when they enter the prison system. Thus, fighting is common among different Sureño gangs even though they share the same common identity. Sureños have emerged as a national gang in the United States.
The Sinaloa Cartel (Spanish: Cártel de Sinaloa or CDS) is an international drug trafficking, money laundering, and organized crime syndicate. Established during the mid-1980s, the Sinaloa Cartel is based primarily in the city of Culiacán, Sinaloa, with operations in the Mexican states of Baja California, Durango, Sonora, and Chihuahua. The cartel is also known as the Guzmán-Loera Organization and the Pacific Cartel, the latter due to the coast of Mexico from which it originated. The cartel has also been called the Federation and the Blood Alliance. The ‘Federation’ was partially splintered when the Beltrán-Leyva brothers broke apart from the Sinaloa Cartel.
The United States Intelligence Community considers the Sinaloa Cartel “the most powerful drug trafficking organization in the world” and in 2011, the Los Angeles Times called it “Mexico’s most powerful organized crime group.” The Sinaloa Cartel is associated with the label “Golden Triangle”, which refers to the states of Sinaloa, Durango, and Chihuahua. The region is a major producer of Mexican opium and marijuana. According to the U.S. Attorney General, the Sinaloa Cartel is responsible for importing into the United States and distributing nearly 200 tons of cocaine and large amounts of heroin between 1990 and 2008. According to the National Drug Intelligence Center, within the U.S. the Sinaloa Cartel is primarily involved in the distribution of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, marijuana and MDMA.
As of 2015, the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling illicit drugs into the United States and trafficking them throughout the United States.[2